Resurrection Apolytikion in the 1st Tone
What would it have been like to be there that first Pascha? We can well imagine being witnesses to a massive burst of energy, of life, coming out of the tomb. The recent restoration of the sacred tomb in the Church of the Resurrection (Holy Sepulcher) hints at that burst of energy (see the description of the strange electromagnetic field from the slab on which our Lord’s body lay: http://aleteia.org/2016/11/15/mysteries-surround-the-opening-of-the-tomb-of-christ/).
We can experience this same burst of energy in the Resurrection Apolytikion in the 1st Tone.
Τοῦ λίθου σφραγισθέντος ὑπὸ τῶν Ἰουδαίων, καὶ στρατιωτῶν φυλασσόντων τὸ ἄχραντόν σου σῶμα, ἀνέστης τριήμερος Σωτήρ, δωρούμενος τῷ κόσμῳ τὴν ζωήν. Διὰ τοῦτο αἱ Δυνάμεις τῶν οὐρανῶν ἐβόων σοι Ζωοδότα· Δόξα τῇ ἀναστάσει σου Χριστέ, δόξα τῇ Βασιλείᾳ σου, δόξα τῇ οἰκονομίᾳ σου, μόνε Φιλάνθρωπε.
Tou lithou sphrayisthentos ipo ton Ioudeon,
ke stratioton philassonton to achranton sou soma,
anestis tri-imeros Sotir, doroumenos to kosmo tin zoin.
Dia touto e Dinamis ton ouranon evoon si Zoodota:
Doxa ti Anastasi sou Christe,
Doxa ti Vasilia sou,
Doxa di ikonomia sou,
While/Although the stone was sealed by the Judeans,
and while/although the soldiers were guarding Your immaculate body,
You arose, O three-day Savior, granting life to the world.
For this reason the Powers of heaven were crying out to You the Giver of Life:
Glory to Your Resurrection, O Christ,
Glory to Your Kingdom,
Glory to Your plan of salvation,
O only Friend of Humanity.
A Burst of Energy!
The hymn divides into 2 parts:
- The event of the Resurrection with its surrounding description
- The result of the Resurrection in angelic songs of praise
The energy of the Resurrection is captured by the only active verb, anestis (You rose) in the center of the section. The strength of the active verb cuts through the background described by the three participles, and is nearly shocking to the ear which had been lulled into a sense of normalcy.
The Background “Noise”
The first two phrases set the seen. This setting is accomplished grammatically by a wonderful Greek construction called a genitive absolute. This construction is only loosely connected with the main sentence, and describes the circumstances under which the main verb takes place. That relationship can take a number of different forms: it can indicate simply the circumstances present when the main verb takes place; it can indicate cause or it can emphasize time; it can also indicate an adversative although relationship. In English we like to have these relationships specified and often translations will only give one possibility. The beauty of the Greek construction is the ambiguity; it can indicate a number of different types of relationships all at once.
Here, our hymn begins by setting the scene. We see the large stone rolled against the entrance of the tomb. It is not, however, just a stone: it has been sealed with the seals of the High Priest to make sure that the stone is not tampered with. At the same time, the temple guard has been stationed at the door of the tomb to make sure no one enters the tomb or breaks the seals. There is a quietness about these two phrases; everything seems to be in place; nothing has been disturbed.
A Burst of New Life-Energy
Against this background the anestis burst onto the scene. The “while” indicating the background circumstances has suddenly been transformed into an “although”! Despite all the precautions, the seals are broken and, as we know from St. Matthew’s Gospel, the guard collapses unconscious.
This burst of life-energy is followed up immediately with its consequences. The life which bursts from the tomb bestows this same life on the world. The participle doroumenos which has a more dynamic feel than the participles of the first two phrases, since it is wholly integrated into the main action by modifying the subject of the verb anestis: the one who has risen is the one who has the power to pass this life energy along. This participle comes from the verb doreomai which means more than simply granting. It signifies something given or presented; it implies not that the giver is superior to the receiver, some authority granting a special privilege to an underling, but rather it indicates a gift given in love.
The second half of the hymn changes venue entirely. Now we are given a vision of the heavenly reaction to the actions of the first half.
The cause and effect is made clear by the conjunction dio (for this reason; therefore). The gift of new life on earth prompts the angels to offer glory to God. Their hymn consists of 3 parts:
- Praise of the Resurrection
- Praise of the Kingdom
- Praise of the Divine Plan of Salvation
We are presented with an ever-widening vision of God’s work on earth. The kernel is the Resurrection; the angelic praise jumps directly from the narration in the first part. The Kingdom (or more properly, the royal power) looks to all those who have received the new life of the Resurrection. Finally the oikonomia or the whole divine Plan of Salvation tells us that the life-giving Resurrection and the establishment of our Lord’s royal rule are actually parts of a larger whole, one that stretches back to the very beginning and forward to the consummation of the world. But, the essence of this plan is not wrath or fear, but the loving gift of true and eternal life.
What about Us?
What is unusual about this second half of the hymn? Although it technically narrates the glory given to God by the angels in heaven, yet we are, in fact, the ones who are singing this hymn and therefore singing the hymn of the angels with them! Because our Lord has presented us with the great gift of true and eternal life, the life of the Resurrection, we have become fellow citizens with the angels, and have already begun on earth to join in the angelic chorus glorifying God for all that He has done.
The hymn tells us, then, that since we are filled with the new life-energy, our whole life must be transformed into a life of doxology. Just as with the angels, so with us there can be nothing else of such importance in our lives that should prevent us from offering glory to God constantly. What an amazing vocation we are called to!